White Learners in North America

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Bridgeman et al. (2009) pdf

  • Automated scoring models for evaluating English essays, or e-rater
  • The score difference between human rater and e-rater was significantly smaller for 11th grade essays written by White and African American students than other groups

Jiang & Pardos (2021) pdf

  • Predicting university course grades using LSTM
  • Roughly equal accuracy across racial groups
  • Slightly better accuracy (~1%) across racial groups when including race in model

Zhang et al. (2022) [1]

  • Detecting student use of self-regulated learning (SRL) in mathematical problem-solving process
  • For each SRL-related detector, relatively small differences in AUC were observed across racial/ethnic groups.
  • No racial/ethnic group consistently had best-performing detectors

Li, Xing, & Leite (2022) pdf

  • Models predicting whether two students will communicate on an online discussion forum
  • Compared members of overrepresented racial groups to members of underrepresented racial groups (overrepresented group approximately 90% White)
  • Multiple fairness approaches lead to ABROCA of under 0.01 for overrepresented versus underrepresented students

Sulaiman & Roy (2022) [2]

  • Models predicting whether a law student will pass the bar exam (to practice law)
  • Compared White and non-White students
  • Models not applying fairness constraints performed significantly worse for White students in terms of ABROCA
  • Models applying fairness constraints performed equivalently for White and non-White students

Jeong et al. (2022) [3]

  • Predicting 9th grade math score from academic performance, surveys, and demographic information
  • Despite comparable accuracy, model tends to overpredict White students' performance
  • Several fairness correction methods equalize false positive and false negative rates across groups.

Permodo et al. (2023) pdf

  • Paper discusses system that predicts probabilities of on-time graduation
  • Prediction is less accurate for White students than other students

Zhang et al.(2023) pdf

  • Models developed to detect attributes of student feedback for other students’ mathematics solutions, reflecting the presence of three constructs:1) commenting on process, 2) commenting on the answer, and 3) relating to self.
  • Models have approximately equal performance for White, African American and Hispanic/Latinx students.

Almoubayyed et al. (2023) pdf

  • Models discovering generalization of the performance for reading comprehension ability in the context of middle school students’ usage of Carnegie Learning’s ITS for mathematics instruction
  • Model trained on smaller dataset achieves greater fairness in prediction for white and non-white students
  • For model trained on larger dataset, prediction is more accurate for white students than for non-white students.